Myanmar  

Quick Facts

Population 53 million (2016)
GDP at PPP (current international dollars) 303 billion (2016)
GDP per capita at PPP (current international dollars) 5,732 (2016)

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In the area of agriculture, Myanmar is coordinating with its GMS partners to increase subregional agricultural trade, while joining efforts to improve food security, address rising energy costs, and develop its production of agri-food products.

Myanmar is one of the GMS countries most vulnerable to climate change, and is working with its subregional partners to increase its climate resilience.

Myanmar has substantial energy resources that could support the expansion of commercial energy production. The government seeks to address climate change concerns by promoting the use of alternative fuels in households, promoting wider use of new and renewable energy sources, and promoting energy efficiency and conservation. Cross-border power connections with GMS neighbors are being developed for the export of hydropower.

Nearly half of Myanmar is covered in forests, and the country enjoys large freshwater and marine resources. The country is a biodiversity hotspot with more than 1,000 bird species and 7,000 different types of plants. Myanmar is working to increase forest protection, and coordinate with its GMS partners on subregional initiatives involving the environment.

In the area of human resource development, Myanmar is working to improve access to education in border areas with vocational training schools, including those specifically serving women. The country is also working with its GMS partners on social protection for children, anti-trafficking initiatives, control of malaria and other communicable diseases, and safe labor migration. Increasing the accessibility to both basic and higher education is a national government goal, as is greater information exchange with GMS partner countries.

Myanmar is modernizing and improving its telecommunications and information communications technology systems. This includes programs for improving international exchange links, and developing rural communications systems. The Government is working to reduce the digital divide and to establish connectivity nationwide.

Myanmar is promoting tourism that generates foreign exchange, creates jobs, and contributes to poverty reduction. The country’s attractions include the iconic Shwedagon Pagoda and Bagan, known as the land of a thousand pagodas. Inlay Lake and Mandalay are also important attractions for visitors. Myanmar cooperates in subregional tourism working groups that facilitate the sharing of expertise with GMS neighbors. Myanmar’s private sector is undergoing dramatic changes. Studies are underway to examine how best to support the development of trade and investment in order to spread its benefits to the poor and vulnerable.

Regulatory reforms that promote private sector investment are being undertaken, and investments are being considered in agriculture, tourism, manufacturing and other sectors. Myanmar is seeking to expand its trade with GMS partners. Myanmar is an important GMS transport link to South Asia.

The government has recognized the importance of improving its domestic transport network, including roads that connect to the subregional corridors. The country also has an extensive rail network, an important deep water port, and a domestic river transport network.

ADB and Myanmar: Fact Sheet

Journal of Greater Mekong Subregion Development Studies - July 2006

This issue of the Journal focuses on the seminal research undertaken by Social Research Institute of Chiang Mai University (SRI-CMU) on the question: How does community-based tourism (CBT) impact on poverty? Five research papers were selected from the SRI-CMU project. The overview article, Tourism: Blessings for All?, by Mingsarn Kaosa-ard, discusses the returns from tourism and how these returns are being shared from a national perspective. The benefits and the potential negative impacts of tourism are weighed.


Connecting Nations, Linking People

This publication outlines the GMS Economic Cooperation Program (GMS Program) which was initiated in 1992 with the support of ADB. It aims to promote economic cooperation among Cambodia, People's Republic of China (PRC), Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam.
The GMS Program covers nine priority sectors: transportation, telecommunications, energy, environment, human resource development, trade, investment, tourism, and agriculture.


Journal of Greater Mekong Subregion Development Studies - October 2005

The fledgling Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Journal for Development Studies, published under the auspices of the Phnom Penh Plan (PPP) for Development Management, moves a step ahead with the second issue. In what might be considered as "ascending steps," GMS scholarship is moving forward, slowly but surely. The PPP's commitment is to ensure that we continue to make strides towards our goal of bridging the gap between research and capacity building and to propagate the gospel of balanced socioeconomic development in the GMS.


Journal of Greater Mekong Subregion Development Studies - December 2004

This is the inaugural issue of the Journal of Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Development Studies. It is published under the auspices of the Phnom Penh Plan (PPP) for Development Management, a recent capacity building initiative of GMS countries supported by the Asian Development Bank and the New Zealand Agency for International Development. Enhancing skills and knowledge of middle and senior GMS civil servants is at the heart of the PPP. The journal seeks to complement this effort by promoting a better understanding of GMS development issues.


Greater Mekong Subregion Atlas of the Environment

The Greater Mekong Subregion Atlas of the Environment champions the environment of a unique part of Asia, an area straddled by rivers great and small, with bountiful watersheds, wetlands, and forests.
The Atlas celebrates the peoples of the subregion, and presents the environmental challenges they face and their responses. It reminds us that the subregion's peoples and communities are key to maintaining its environment.